Effects of strength or aerobic training on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and peak oxygen consumption in obese dieting subjects.
Geliebter A, Maher MM, Gerace L, Gutin B, Heymsfield SB, Hashim SA.
Obesity Research Center, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA. AG658@columbia.edu
Given that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is related largely to the amount of fat-free mass (FFM), the hypothesis was that strength training, which stimulates muscle hypertrophy, would help preserve both FFM and RMR during dieting. In a randomized controlled intervention trial, moderately obese subjects (aged 19-48 y) were assigned to one of three groups: diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only. Sixty-five subjects (25 men and 40 women) completed the study. They received a formula diet with an energy content of 70% of RMR or 5150 +/- 1070 kJ/d (x +/- SD) during the 8-wk intervention. They were seen weekly for individual nutritional counseling. Subjects in the two exercise groups, designed to be isoenergetic, trained three times per week under supervision. Those in the strength-training group performed progressive weight-resistance exercises for the upper and lower body. Those in the aerobic group performed alternate leg and arm cycling. After 8 wk, the mean amount of weight lost, 9.0 kg, did not differ significantly among groups. The strength-training group, however, lost significantly less FFM (P < 0.05) than the aerobic and diet-only groups. The strength-training group also showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in anthropometrically measured flexed arm muscle mass and grip strength. Mean RMR declined significantly, without differing among groups. Peak oxygen consumption increased the most for the aerobic group (P = 0.03). In conclusion, strength training significantly reduced the loss of FFM during dieting but did not prevent the decline in RMR.
1: Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Sep;66(3):551-6. Links
How much physical activity is needed to minimize weight gain in previously obese women?
Schoeller DA, Shay K, Kushner RF.
Committee on Human Nutrition and Nutritional Biology and the Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, USA. email@example.com
Exercise is frequently identified as a predictor of weight maintenance after elective weight loss in retrospective studies of treatments for obesity. We conducted a prospective study to test whether physical activity measured soon after weight loss predicted weight maintenance and to determine how much physical activity was required to optimize maintenance. Thirty-two women [mean (+/- SD) age, 38 +/- 7 y; body mass index (in kg/m2), 24 +/- 3] were recruited through local advertising within 3 mo of reaching their target for weight loss (23 +/- 9 kg). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labeled water method. Postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR) and postprandial RMR [expressed as thermic effect of a meal (TEM)] were measured by respiratory gas exchange. Women in the physically active group (ratio of TEE to RMR = 1.89 +/- 0.08) gained 2.5 +/- 3.1 kg during the 12 mo after reaching their target for weight loss, moderately active women (TEE:RMR = 1.64 +/- 0.05) gained 9.9 +/- 10.5 kg, and sedentary women (TEE:RMR = 1.44 +/- 0.08) gained 7.0 +/- 5.9 kg (P < 0.01). Retrospective analyses of weight regain as a function of energy expended in physical activity indicated a threshold for weight maintenance of 47 kJ x kg body wt(-1) x d(-1). This corresponds to an average of 80 min/d of moderate activity or 35 min/d of vigorous activity added to a sedentary lifestyle.